YACHT: HISTORY, DESCRIPTION, DESIGN, INTERESTING FACTS, COST
Surely many do not fully understand the meaning of the word yacht, and one hundred percent, most people have not even seen a vessel of this type in real life, let alone a walk on it. The word yacht appeared in the 17th century, however, it came from the pro-German concept "jachtschip", which means "vessel to pursue." At a later time and up to the present day, a yacht means a sailing, motor or sailing-motor vessel for long-distance travel, sports or sea trips. The first sailing boats appeared among the Egyptians in the 4th century BC, information about this is kept by tablets with images of floating structures with one mast and straight sail. Since that time immemorial, the design and appearance of a sailing vessel has undergone dramatic changes, and today a modern yacht has become the crown of a technological breakthrough using materials for the manufacture of parts for spaceships.
Types of yachts:
Sailing yachts (Keel yachts, dinghies and compromises).
Motor yachts are comfortable boats, perfect for short trips and anchorages. But due to the lack of a false keel, movement in strong winds and large waves becomes extremely difficult, causing discomfort to passengers.
Racing yachts are sea cars designed for high-speed short transitions or regattas in narrow and closed waters. Usually such boats do not have cabins and a large list of electronic devices and navigation aids.
Cruising yachts - ships are focused on long sea voyages with a wide range of equipment and safety equipment.
Single-hull, double-hull, three-hull - catamarans and trimarans.
Initially, a yacht is a boat designed to sail in open waters (Oceans and seas). Their design allows the vessel to navigate in an unlimited area, far from the coast with gusty winds reaching 30 meters per second at low air or water temperatures, and waves up to 7 meters in height. In addition to such difficult sailing conditions, the vessel must sail autonomously, and also be able to overcome the consequences of accidents without hope of salvation. Yachts in this category have:
Heavy ballast keel with a submersion of at least 1.8 meters.
Waterline length must not be less than 42 feet (14 meters).
Electronic equipment and navigation:
an echo sounder is a sonar aimed at a narrow section of the seabed in order to obtain a digitized image of the landscape, the distance from the bottom of the vessel to the seabed. The echo sounder is an excellent helper for finding fish;
LAG is a navigation device that measures the speed of the vessel and the distance traveled. With this device, you can easily find out the drift correction if the GPS is out of order;
GPS - stands for Global Satellite System for fast and accurate positioning of a vessel in space;
A radar is a bearing device that uses high-frequency waves capable of seeing underwater, waterborne and air targets, as well as coastal objects. The sensitivity of the device is very high. With the help of the radar, you can see small objects in the form of navigation buoys. The device allows you to control the ship in zero visibility conditions;
autopilot - a complex of electronic and mechanical devices with software that allows autonomously to follow a given trajectory;
marine radio station;
Steering is carried out using the rudder blade, which drives the steering wheel or tiller.
In addition to category A and B yachts plowing the ocean, there are boats designed for coastal navigation and closed waters (rivers, lakes). Due to the rapid development of sailing, nautical sports and the growing number of wealthy citizens, these types of yachts (belonging to categories C and D) have gained great popularity. Their main differences from categories A and B are in the keel block. Instead of a heavy and long keel, which gives good stability, a centerboard is used in the construction of yachts of this class. It looks like a short fin without weight. In some cases, with the possibility of cleaning it into a special niche located in the bottom of the case. As for the rest, their design practically does not differ from boats of a higher class. The equipment of vessels for coastal navigation and movement in closed waters may be limited by such devices and navigation aids as:
marine radio station;
Sailing equipment of the yacht
Modern sailing yachts can be built in many ways, but the most popular today is the "Bermuda sloop". The sail of a yacht of this type resembles a shark's tooth from afar. The sails of the "Bermuda sloop" are attached to the mast on halyards and are guided by sheets.
The yacht has one mast and a whole set of sails:
the mainsail is the main sail with a large area. Trisel - storm grotto;
staysail - an auxiliary mainsail - the second main sail for movement on full courses and movement of the vessel in strong winds. In the arsenal of a modern sailing yacht there is a storm staysail. The sail has a small footprint and is made of durable material;
a spinnaker - a large area racing sail made of lightweight material;
gennaker - a racing sail resembling a parachute with a large area;
Genoa is the largest sail on a yacht's bow. With good backstay, it can give the yacht the best speed.
Cabin inside the yacht
Inside the yacht
The interior space of most boats, with the exception of racing boats, has at least one cabin with four berths. The yacht, designed for long sea voyages, has a high level of comfort for the crew and passengers. The boat has a comfortable toilet with an electric pump and shower. A galley where the cook can prepare any culinary masterpiece. Spacious, comfortable wardroom, in which the crew will spend time between watches. The yacht can have several sleeping cabins, each of them can accommodate from two to six people.
Life on a cruise yacht is no different from home. Modern yachts can be equipped with seawater desalination plants, satellite TV, sound systems and even an entire cinema. In the bathrooms, sometimes not simple bathtubs are installed, but a Jacuzzi for two. The cabins have full double beds. In short, staying on a yacht will be just as comfortable as staying in a luxury hotel room.
Motor yachts will be an excellent choice for those whose ambitions end with short crossings or movements in closed waters. Such a boat is easy to control. But when purchasing a yacht of this type, you need to understand that serious travel is out of the question, because of the design features. The first drawback will be high fuel consumption, with many examples running on gasoline. This type of fuel makes the engine highly revving, which allows it to achieve good cruising speed, acceleration, and makes it possible to plan and maneuver when parking. But these advantages are relative, since the fuel consumption on such ships is at least forty liters per hour. Another serious drawback is the lack of a false keel. This makes the boat less stable and unable to move in rough seas. In addition, at large waves, the crew experiences the most severe roll. On keel yachts the roll is less noticeable.
Interesting facts and personalities
Yachting is gaining popularity in the CIS countries every year. In recent years, new celebrities have begun to emerge in the yachting community. Increasingly, new personalities appear on the Internet who have made round-the-world travels. And these tourists are the most ordinary people, they are far from professionals, members of expeditions. Now "round the world" are made by married couples with children, and even pensioners. There are many blogs on the internet about life on a yacht. This marine life is chosen by many people in the United States. In their opinion, living on a yacht is cheaper than on land. Especially if the ship is at a dead anchor, because there is no need to pay for such anchorage. In addition, each cruising yacht is a self-contained house afloat.
One of the most worthy travelers was the crew of the yacht "Yuri Gagarin". The travelers themselves call themselves office clerks, and as they say about themselves, they are amateurs in yachting, however, since 2013 they have managed to circumnavigate most of the globe. But in the history of navigation there are people who managed to go around the entire globe alone. One of