Reciprocating Compressor Basics

Reciprocating compressors are positive displacement machines. A reciprocating compressor uses a piston to compress the air.

Things you have to know about Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating compressors are expensive compressors but when we talk about quality it comes at top of the list of company choice. In this compressors, Piston helps in compressing the air in a cylinder with one way valves and pumps into an air chamber.

Reciprocating compressor saw where there is a requirement of high pressure and low flow. Reciprocating compressors or piston compressors are positive displacement machines that work on the concept of reciprocation by compressing and displacing element. Reciprocating compressors use cylinders with pistons built-in.

In short, each cylinder consists of closed ends next to the plate and is finished at the opposite end with a movable piston. The valves (suction and delivery valve) of the cylinders are located underneath the compressor’s valve pockets. During the primary stage of compression, air moves into the cylinder via a suction valve, triggered by the movement of the piston. This creates a vacuum. Once the cylinder’s interior pressure exceeds the pressure within the discharge pipes, valves open and permit the air out of the cylinder.

Principle of Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating compressors usually draw power from diesel. This could be by way of a direct-drive or a belt drives system, either of which can be in continuous operation as long because the engine is on. The whole cycle works by a mechanism for unloading.

A volume of gas is drawn into a cylinder in this air compressor, it is trapped and compressed by piston and then discharged into the discharge line. The cylinder values control the flow of gas through the cylinder, these valves act as check valves. Let’s take a look at reciprocating compressor basics.

  • The Intake Cycle

It starts with the piston which is pulled downward by the help of cylinder. This motion produces a vacuum between the pistons top and therefore, the head of the cylinder, bringing lower pressure air into the cylinder through a series of inlet valves. These valves are located above the piston head because it descends. During this a part of the cycle, inlet valves stay open and discharge valves stay closed.

In Reciprocating Compressor, The piston then moves back upward, prompting inlet valves to shut so air is trapped within the cylinder, because the piston continues to push upward, the world that air occupies within the cylinder is reduced, leading to pressurize the air.

The pressure of the air inside the cylinder will pass by opening the valve and allowing the pressurized air to exit. A closed discharge valve serves to dam air from moving into the low-pressure a part of the cylinder after it’s been pressurized. The air exiting the discharge port then cycles through an air receiver tank to free the low-frequency pulsation it acquired during compression.

  • The Unloading Process

Once the pressure control device senses that the air within the receiving tank has reached the air mass cut-out threshold, it signals the compressor to unload. Unloading is also full or partial, counting on the reciprocating compressor design.

Even so, As down-stream machinery uses the newly compressed gas, the force per unit area of the tank will gradually reduce. Once it falls to the re-surmised load point, the control contrivance sanctions the compressor to re-start the compression cycle and build the tank pressure up once again.

  • The Duty Cycle

The duty cycle is set by taking the time compressor spends on loading and comparing it to the time the machine runs. Reciprocating compressors are only designed for a full load time and may be unloaded the remain of the time.

The duty cycle tells to the measure of time a compressor can be worked in a given time-frame at 100 PSI, and a standard surrounding temperature of 72° F. It is usually communicated in rate design: Compressor on schedule ÷ (on a schedule + off time) = Duty Cycle %.

  • Lubrication

Not every reciprocating compressor design works like any other compressor design, during this design, the provision from the sump is crucial to keep the full system lubricated and functioning properly. In this configuration, you had have to alter the lubricant change out intervals recommended by the engine suppliers.

As they had not taken into consideration the additional needs of the compressor. The new schedule must consider the warmth load that the compressor adds to the lubricant if you would like to induce an accurate gauge of the lubricant’s lowered life.

  • Cooling

In this case, for the most air compressors powered by the engines, the first cooling source for the system is the lubricant. The engine oil cooler cools the lubricant, by recycling through the compressor. Airflow from the fan within the engine oil cooler can even eliminate a tiny low portion of the warmth the compressor body releases, removing it from the system together with discharged exhaust air.

The cooling methods are crucial to the longevity of the equipment. Without them, the danger of an increase in temperature limitations is much more if your application surpasses the recommended duty cycle. Whenever lubricant becomes too hot and also the temperature exceeds manufacturer recommendation, the lubricant could break down prematurely. This implies having to alter the lubrication more often at the best and early failure of components within the compressor and engine at the worst.

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